2015 Agreement On Peace And Reconciliation In Mali

-April 7, 2021-

2015 Agreement On Peace And Reconciliation In Mali

Mike Burroughs

In 2015, the Malian government and armed groups concluded the Peace and Reconciliation Agreement in Mali, a peace agreement aimed at ending years of violent conflict in parts of the country. Five years later, the implementation of the agreement did not progress as planned. From this point of view, the population of southern Mali, which represents 80% of the electorate, will be larger than that of northern Mali. Nevertheless, there are increasingly clear signs among the People of the South-East that the north-north crisis is not resolved militarily and that the agreement remains the best chance of stabilizing this part of the country. The implementation of the peace and reconciliation agreement in Mali, signed on 15 May in Bamako and concluded on 20 June 2015 in Mali, will continue thanks to the joint efforts of the Malian parties (the government, the coordination of the Azawad movement and the coalition of armed group platforms) with the support of the international mediation team. The main non-state actors in the peace process are the CMA and the platform. The CMA consists of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA), the Arab Movement of Azawad (MAA), a faction of the People`s Coalition of Azawad (CPA) and a splinter group of the Coordination of Patriotic Movements of Resistance (CMRFP-II). The platform consists of the Coordination of Patriotic Resistance Movements and Fronts (CMFPR-I), the Touareg Imghad and Allied Self-Defence Group (GATIA) and the dissident groups of the CPA and maA. While the recognition and involvement of all conflicting actors in the peace process is a commendable constructive approach to resolving conflicts, the real fragmentation within the different groups shows the lack of leadership between movements, resulting in a lack of clarity on the contentious issues and the appropriate means to resolve them. During the UN Security Council briefing on 16 June, Mahamat Saleh Annadif, head of THE MINUSMA mission, accelerated the implementation of the peace agreement, including "good services" and pressure from members of the international mediation team on the parties. Annadif also stressed the need to strengthen the partnership between the UN mission and the Malian defence and security forces, as well as the future G5 joint force of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, which will be welcomed by the UN Security Council on 21 June.

The peace agreement, which will lead to the direct election of local representatives, offers real potential for peace-building and strengthening participatory local governance. However, the silence of the agreement on the modalities for representing the interests, issues and perspectives of different groups within Malian society means that it does not adequately address the demands for inclusion that underlie all episodes of the conflict and risks perpetuating the resurgence of violence. Combating these representative aspects would provide an effective inclusive structural basis for the ambitious local government institutions under the agreement and would meet the self-determination and self-development needs of the various social groups that encompass Malian society.

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